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Phenomenology of Mind download ebook

by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Phenomenology of Mind download ebook
ISBN:
039103684X
ISBN13:
978-0391036840
Author:
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
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Humanities Pr; 2 edition (October 1, 1990)
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1682 kb
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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (/ˈheɪɡəl/; German: ; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (/ˈheɪɡəl/; German: ; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved wide recognition in his day and-while primarily influential within the continental tradition of philosophy-has become increasingly influential in the analytic tradition as well. Although Hegel remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy is universally recognized.

Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most important and widely discussed .

Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most important and widely discussed philosophical work. Hegel's first book, it describes the three-stage dialectical life of Spirit. The title can be translated as either The Phenomenology of Spirit or The Phenomenology of Mind, because the German word Geist has both meanings. Phenomenology was the basis of Hegel's later philosophy and marked a significant development in German idealism after Kant.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Encyclopedia of the Philosophical . The Phenomenology of Mind (Philosophical Classics).

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline, Part 1, Science of Logic (Cambridge Hegel Translations). He has published numerous books on German philosophy and on Hegel in particular, including Hegel's Phenomenology: The Sociality of Reason (Cambridge, 1994), Hegel: A Biography (Cambridge, 2000), and German Philosophy 1760�860: The Legacy of Idealism (Cambridge, 2002).

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel is easily the most controversial of the canonical philosophers. The Phenomenology of Spirit was Hegel’s first published book, and it is widely considered his masterpiece. Alternately revered and reviled, worshiped or scorned, he is a thinker whose conclusions are almost universally rejected and yet whose influence is impossible to escape. It is a history of consciousness.

Georg wilhelm friedrich hegel. The Phenomenology of Spirit Title: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel : The phenomenology of spirit. The Phenomenology of Spirit. Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) is one of the most influential texts in the history of modern philosophy. In it, Hegel proposed an arresting and novel picture of the relation of mind to world and of people to each other. Title: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel : The phenomenology of spirit, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ; Terry Pinkard, Georgetown University, Washington DC. Findlay's "Analysis of The Text" is as often confusing (yes, more so than Hegel himself) as it is helpful. This brilliant study of the stages in the mind's necessary progress from immediate sense-consciousness to the position of a scientific philosophy includes an introductory essay and a ph analysis of the text to help the reader understan. The Philosophy of History. by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel · J. Sibree · . Friedrich · Charles Hegel.

Reviews:
  • Black_Hawk_Down.
Any work of philosophy will require multiple readings to understand. This is especially true of Hegel's works, and, of these, The Phenomenology. It's paramount, therefore, that an edition be well bound and tough, able to withstand sweaty palms and oily fingers as well as cramped book bags and hot or humid rooms. The Dover edition meets these criteria and outperforms in every way.
I return to this edition once a year to reread and refresh, and it has never lost a page, torn or buckled, despite my sometimes treating it like a coaster, occasionally filthy fingers, and not infrequent dropping. The Dover edition is a must have for anyone serious about their study of this masterpiece.
  • Nalmergas
I cannot comment of the content because I have not read the original German text, but this translation is very difficult to read because of phrasing and comma splices. There are way too many commas to read it easily. It is a cheap edition, and buying a more expensive edition is certainly worthwhile just for the quality of the translation (assuming you don't know German well enough to read the original).
  • Jugore
For some reason an Author alphabetization on my Kindle places this item under "Georg" instead of under "Hegel".
  • elegant stranger
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was a German Idealist philosopher, who was very influential on later Philosophy of History, Philosophy of Religion, and even Existentialism [e.g., Sartre's Being and Nothingness]. Hegel also wrote (or at least delivered lectures that were transcribed by his students) works such as The Philosophy of History,Philosophy of Right,Logic, etc.

The book's title can just as easily be translated as "Phenomenology of SPIRIT," since the German word "Geist" carries both connotations. Hegel wrote in the Preface to this 1807 book (which was intended to serve as a long-awaited summation of his developing "system" of philosophy), " In my view...everything depends on grasping and expressing the ultimate truth not as Substance but as Subject as well... The life of God and divine intelligence, then, can ... be spoken of as love disporting with itself; but this idea falls into edification, and even sinks into insipidity, if it lacks the seriousness, the suffering, the patience, and the labour of the negative... The truth is the whole. The whole, however, is merely the essential nature reaching its completeness through the process of its own development." (Pg. 80-81)

He adds, "The mind's immediate existence, conscious life, has two aspects---cognition and objectivity which is opposed to or negative of the subjective function of knowing... Consciousness knows and comprehends nothing but what falls within its experience; for what is found in experience is merely spiritual substance, and, moreover, object of its self. Mind, however, becomes object, for it consists in the process of becoming an object to itself, i.e. an object for its own self, and in transcending this otherness." (Pg. 96) He further states, "The subsistence of substance of anything that exists is its self-identity; for its want of identity, or oneness with itself, would be its dissolution... by means of its quality one existence is distinguished from another or is an `existence'; it is for itself, something on its own account, or subsists with itself because of this simple characteristic. But by doing so it is essentially Thought. Here we find contained the principle that Being is Thought." (Pg. 113)

He wrote in the Introduction, "if the fear of falling into error introduces an element of distrust into science, which without any scruples of that sort goes to work and actually does know, it is not easy to understand why, conversely a distrust should not be placed in this very distrust... this fear... presupposes a distinction of ourselves from this knowledge. More especially it takes for granted that the Absolute stands on one side, and that knowledge on the other side, by itself and cut off from the Absolute, is still something real; in other words, that knowledge, which, by being outside the Absolute, is certainly also outside truth, is nevertheless true---a position which.... makes itself known rather as fear of the truth. This conclusion comes from the fact that the Absolute alone is true or that the True is alone absolute... knowledge in general, though it may possibly be incapable of grasping the Absolute, can still be capable of truth of another kind." (Pg. 133)

He observes, "Consciousness is for itself and on its own account, it is a distinguishing of what is undistinguished, it is Self-consciousness. I distinguish myself from myself; and therein I am immediately aware that this factor distinguished from me is not distinguished. I, the selfsame being, thrust myself away from myself; but this which is distinguished, which is set up as unlike me, is immediately on its being distinguished no distinction for me. Consciousness of an other, of an object in general, is indeed itself necessarily self-consciousness, reflectedness into self, consciousness of self in its otherness... not merely is consciousness of a thing only possible for a self-consciousness, but that this self-consciousness along is the truth of those attitudes. But it is only for us ... that this truth is actually present; it is not yet so for the consciousness immersed in the experience. Self-consciousness has in the first instance become a specific reality on its own account... has come into being for itself; it is not yet in the form of unity with consciousness in general." (Ch. III, pg. 211-212)

He states, "at the stage we are now considering, religion is in part the outcome of the substance, and is the pure consciousness of that substance; in part this pure consciousness is alienated from its concrete actual consciousness, the essence from its existence. It is doubtless no longer the insubstantial process of consciousness; but it has still the characteristic of opposition to actuality qua this actuality in general, and of opposition to the actuality of self-consciousness in particular. It is essentially, therefore, merely a BELIEF. This pure consciousness of Absolute Being is a consciousness in estrangement." (Ch. VI, pg. 551)

He argues, "The ground of knowledge... is the conscious universal, and in its ultimate meaning is absolute spirit, which in abstract pure consciousness, or thought as such, is merely absolute Being, but qua self-consciousness is the knowledge of itself... When realizing its inherent principle ... it develops this moment essential to it; but that moment seems to it to belong to belief, and to be... a fortuitous knowledge of stories of `real' events in this ordinary sense of `real.' It thus here charges religious belief with basing its certainty on some particular historical evidences, which, considered as historical evidences, would assuredly not even warrant that degree of certainty about the matter which we get regarding any event mentioned in the newspapers. It further makes the imputation that the certainty in the case of religious belief rests on the accidental fact of the preservation of all this evidence: on the preservation of this evidence partly by means of paper, partly through the skill and honesty in transferring what is written from one paper to another, and lastly rests upon the accurate interpretation of the sense of dead words and letters. As a matter of fact, however, it never occurs to belief to make its certainty depend on such evidences and such fortuitous circumstances.." (II, pg. 572-572)

In the final chapter, he summarizes, "Here, then, we find as a fact consciousness, or the general form in which Being is aware of Being... to be identical with its self-consciousness. This shape is itself a self-consciousness... and this existence possesses equally directly the significance of pure thought, Absolute Being. The absolute Being existing as a concrete actual self-consciousness, seems to have descended from its eternal pure simplicity; but in fact it has, in so doing, attained for the first time its highest nature, its supreme reach of being. For only when the notion of Being has reached its simple purity of nature, is it BOTH the absolute abstraction, which is pure thought and hence the pure singleness of self, AND immediacy or objective being, on account of its simplicity." (Pg. 760)

He continues, "The hopes and expectations of preceding ages pressed forward to, and were solely directed towards this revelation, the vision of what Absolute Being is, and the discovery of themselves therein. This joy, the joy of seeing itself in Absolute Being, becomes realized in self-consciousness, and seizes the whole world. For the Absolute is Spirit, it is the simple movement of those pure abstract moments, which expresses just this---that Ultimate Reality is then, and not till then, known as Spirit when it is seen and beheld as immediate self-consciousness. This conception of spirit knowing itself to be spirit, is still the immediate notion; it is not yet developed." (Pg. 761) He adds, "This individual human being, then, which Absolute Being is revealed to be, goes through in its own case as an individual the process found in sense existence. He is the IMMEDIATELY present God... Consciousness, for which God is thus sensuously present, ceases to see Him, to hear Him: it HAS seen Him, it HAS heard Him. And it is because it only HAS seen and heard Him, that it first becomes itself spiritual consciousness; or, in other words, He has now arisen in Spirit, as He formerly rose before consciousness as an object existing in the sphere of sense... It is not the individual subject by himself, but the individual along with the consciousness of the communion, and what he is for this communion is the complete whole of the individual spirit." (Pg. 762-763)

He also contends, "Nature is nothing outside its essential Being [God]; but this nothing itself IS all the same; it is absolute abstraction, therefore pure thought or absolute self-centeredness, and with its moment of opposition to spiritual unity it is the principle of Evil. The difficulty people find in these conceptions is due solely to sticking to the term `is,' and forgetting the character of thought, where the moments as much ARE as they ARE NOT---are only the process which is Spirit. It is this spiritual unity---unity where the distinctions are merely in the form of moments, or as transcended---which became known to pictorial thinking in that atoning reconciliation spoken of above." (Pg. 777)

Whew! Not exactly a book for some "light summer reading," and I'm sure it would never have made Oprah's Book Club; but this is a historically-important work, that is well worth working through for serious students of philosophy.
  • Androlhala
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was a German Idealist philosopher, who was very influential on later Philosophy of History, Philosophy of Religion, and even Existentialism [e.g., Sartre's Being and Nothingness]. Hegel also wrote (or at least delivered lectures that were transcribed by his students) works such as The Philosophy of History,Philosophy of Right,Logic, etc.

The book's title can just as easily be translated as "Phenomenology of SPIRIT," since the German word "Geist" carries both connotations. Hegel wrote in the Preface to this 1807 book (which was intended to serve as a long-awaited summation of his developing "system" of philosophy), " In my view...everything depends on grasping and expressing the ultimate truth not as Substance but as Subject as well... The life of God and divine intelligence, then, can ... be spoken of as love disporting with itself; but this idea falls into edification, and even sinks into insipidity, if it lacks the seriousness, the suffering, the patience, and the labour of the negative... The truth is the whole. The whole, however, is merely the essential nature reaching its completeness through the process of its own development." (Pg. 80-81)

He adds, "The mind's immediate existence, conscious life, has two aspects---cognition and objectivity which is opposed to or negative of the subjective function of knowing... Consciousness knows and comprehends nothing but what falls within its experience; for what is found in experience is merely spiritual substance, and, moreover, object of its self. Mind, however, becomes object, for it consists in the process of becoming an object to itself, i.e. an object for its own self, and in transcending this otherness." (Pg. 96) He further states, "The subsistence of substance of anything that exists is its self-identity; for its want of identity, or oneness with itself, would be its dissolution... by means of its quality one existence is distinguished from another or is an `existence'; it is for itself, something on its own account, or subsists with itself because of this simple characteristic. But by doing so it is essentially Thought. Here we find contained the principle that Being is Thought." (Pg. 113)

He wrote in the Introduction, "if the fear of falling into error introduces an element of distrust into science, which without any scruples of that sort goes to work and actually does know, it is not easy to understand why, conversely a distrust should not be placed in this very distrust... this fear... presupposes a distinction of ourselves from this knowledge. More especially it takes for granted that the Absolute stands on one side, and that knowledge on the other side, by itself and cut off from the Absolute, is still something real; in other words, that knowledge, which, by being outside the Absolute, is certainly also outside truth, is nevertheless true---a position which.... makes itself known rather as fear of the truth. This conclusion comes from the fact that the Absolute alone is true or that the True is alone absolute... knowledge in general, though it may possibly be incapable of grasping the Absolute, can still be capable of truth of another kind." (Pg. 133)

He observes, "Consciousness is for itself and on its own account, it is a distinguishing of what is undistinguished, it is Self-consciousness. I distinguish myself from myself; and therein I am immediately aware that this factor distinguished from me is not distinguished. I, the selfsame being, thrust myself away from myself; but this which is distinguished, which is set up as unlike me, is immediately on its being distinguished no distinction for me. Consciousness of an other, of an object in general, is indeed itself necessarily self-consciousness, reflectedness into self, consciousness of self in its otherness... not merely is consciousness of a thing only possible for a self-consciousness, but that this self-consciousness along is the truth of those attitudes. But it is only for us ... that this truth is actually present; it is not yet so for the consciousness immersed in the experience. Self-consciousness has in the first instance become a specific reality on its own account... has come into being for itself; it is not yet in the form of unity with consciousness in general." (Ch. III, pg. 211-212)

He states, "at the stage we are now considering, religion is in part the outcome of the substance, and is the pure consciousness of that substance; in part this pure consciousness is alienated from its concrete actual consciousness, the essence from its existence. It is doubtless no longer the insubstantial process of consciousness; but it has still the characteristic of opposition to actuality qua this actuality in general, and of opposition to the actuality of self-consciousness in particular. It is essentially, therefore, merely a BELIEF. This pure consciousness of Absolute Being is a consciousness in estrangement." (Ch. VI, pg. 551)

He argues, "The ground of knowledge... is the conscious universal, and in its ultimate meaning is absolute spirit, which in abstract pure consciousness, or thought as such, is merely absolute Being, but qua self-consciousness is the knowledge of itself... When realizing its inherent principle ... it develops this moment essential to it; but that moment seems to it to belong to belief, and to be... a fortuitous knowledge of stories of `real' events in this ordinary sense of `real.' It thus here charges religious belief with basing its certainty on some particular historical evidences, which, considered as historical evidences, would assuredly not even warrant that degree of certainty about the matter which we get regarding any event mentioned in the newspapers. It further makes the imputation that the certainty in the case of religious belief rests on the accidental fact of the preservation of all this evidence: on the preservation of this evidence partly by means of paper, partly through the skill and honesty in transferring what is written from one paper to another, and lastly rests upon the accurate interpretation of the sense of dead words and letters. As a matter of fact, however, it never occurs to belief to make its certainty depend on such evidences and such fortuitous circumstances.." (II, pg. 572-572)

In the final chapter, he summarizes, "Here, then, we find as a fact consciousness, or the general form in which Being is aware of Being... to be identical with its self-consciousness. This shape is itself a self-consciousness... and this existence possesses equally directly the significance of pure thought, Absolute Being. The absolute Being existing as a concrete actual self-consciousness, seems to have descended from its eternal pure simplicity; but in fact it has, in so doing, attained for the first time its highest nature, its supreme reach of being. For only when the notion of Being has reached its simple purity of nature, is it BOTH the absolute abstraction, which is pure thought and hence the pure singleness of self, AND immediacy or objective being, on account of its simplicity." (Pg. 760)

He continues, "The hopes and expectations of preceding ages pressed forward to, and were solely directed towards this revelation, the vision of what Absolute Being is, and the discovery of themselves therein. This joy, the joy of seeing itself in Absolute Being, becomes realized in self-consciousness, and seizes the whole world. For the Absolute is Spirit, it is the simple movement of those pure abstract moments, which expresses just this---that Ultimate Reality is then, and not till then, known as Spirit when it is seen and beheld as immediate self-consciousness. This conception of spirit knowing itself to be spirit, is still the immediate notion; it is not yet developed." (Pg. 761) He adds, "This individual human being, then, which Absolute Being is revealed to be, goes through in its own case as an individual the process found in sense existence. He is the IMMEDIATELY present God... Consciousness, for which God is thus sensuously present, ceases to see Him, to hear Him: it HAS seen Him, it HAS heard Him. And it is because it only HAS seen and heard Him, that it first becomes itself spiritual consciousness; or, in other words, He has now arisen in Spirit, as He formerly rose before consciousness as an object existing in the sphere of sense... It is not the individual subject by himself, but the individual along with the consciousness of the communion, and what he is for this communion is the complete whole of the individual spirit." (Pg. 762-763)

He also contends, "Nature is nothing outside its essential Being [God]; but this nothing itself IS all the same; it is absolute abstraction, therefore pure thought or absolute self-centeredness, and with its moment of opposition to spiritual unity it is the principle of Evil. The difficulty people find in these conceptions is due solely to sticking to the term `is,' and forgetting the character of thought, where the moments as much ARE as they ARE NOT---are only the process which is Spirit. It is this spiritual unity---unity where the distinctions are merely in the form of moments, or as transcended---which became known to pictorial thinking in that atoning reconciliation spoken of above." (Pg. 777)

Whew! Not exactly a book for some "light summer reading," and I'm sure it would never have made Oprah's Book Club; but this is a historically-important work, that is well worth working through for serious students of philosophy.